Complementary correlative observations of trace organics lend insight into processes defining this composition. A comparison of in situ and airborne radar observations of ocean wave directionality. The directional spectrum of a fully arisen, about 3 m sea as measured by an experimental airborne radar, the NASA K u -band radar ocean wave spectrometer ROWS , is compared to reference pitch-roll buoy data and to the classical SWOP stereo wave observations project spectrum for fully developed conditions. The ROWS spectrum, inferred indirectly from backscattered power measurements at 5-km altitude, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the buoy spectrum.
Specifically, excellent agreement is found between the two nondirectional height spectra, and mean wave directions and directional spreads as functions of frequency. A comparison of the ROWS and SWOP spectra shows the two spectra to be very similar, in detailed shape as well as in terms of the gross spreading characteristics.
Both spectra are seen to exhibit bimodal structures which accord with the Phillips' resonance mechanism. This observation is thus seen to support Phillips' contention that the SWOP modes were indeed resonance modes, not statistical artifacts. Dynamic reusable workflows for ocean science.
Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog search and data access make it now possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate — end-to-end — data search, analysis and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System IOOS which automates the skill-assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event.
A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general.
These workflows adapt as new data enters the data system, facilitate reproducible science , provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased use of dynamic.
Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades.
However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. Ocean science. Enhanced: internal tides and ocean mixing. Recent satellite and in situ observations have shown that at ocean ridges and other seafloor topographic features, a substantial amount of energy is transferred from the main ocean tides into "internal tides. The resulting mixing affects ocean stratification and ocean circulation.
It thus influences climate as well as biological production.
The energy for the internal tides is derived from the rotational energy of the Earth-Moon system changes of the length of the day and the distance to the Moon. The future of naval ocean science research. The past years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations.
It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control. Volume 3: Appendixes. For Vol. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume. The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity.
The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. An L-band option is also under development, again using the same scanner. With this option, simultaneous imaging from 1. And, all receivers except the sounding channels will be configured for 4-Stokes polarimetric operation using high-speed digital. The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor.
These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms.
Similarly, short temporal resolution daily to weekly time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution e. This workshop presentation focuses on potential uses of unmanned aircraft observations in support of water resource management and agriculture. The presentation will provide an overview of NASA Airborne Science capabilities with an emphasis on past UAV missions to provide context on accomplishments as well as technical challenges.
I will also focus on recent NASA Ames efforts to assist in irrigation management and invasive species management using airborne and satellite datasets. PubMed Central. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification.
Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida. The survey was made March , , as part of a cooperative program with the U.
Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L. Internal Forms. An integrated biodesulfurization process, including inoculum preparation, desulfurization and sulfate removal in a single step, for removing sulfur from oils. Top Apps in Lifestyle. The individuals in the active group received N. Highlights of the Ocean Sciences Meeting. WETMAAP promotes science by inquiry through the use of a building-block process, comparative analysis, and analytical observations. Potential effect and mechanism of action of topical chamomile Matricaria chammomila L. Ex vivo drug penetration mechanism from the developed formulations at pH 6. I hope also to stimulate discussion on these issues, leading to identification of activites appropriate for research-funding agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, to undertake. Topical use and systemic dating apps de bergondo of green and roasted coffee oils and ground dating apps de bergondo in a cutaneous incision model in rats Rattus norvegicus albinus.
Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source.
This paper will describe the prototype implementations currently deployed on the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk aircraft, and the ongoing effort to expand the capability to other science platforms. This is hills and forest and monuments of the creation of the region of Brittany or rather first Armoriquethen the Duchy dating apps de bergondo, and then the region of France. This presentation will offer other examples of best practices and successful strategies for engaging scientists in broader impact activities, increasing societal impacts of scientific research, and providing opportunities for collaboration on a national scale. The blue shift of the phycoerythrobilin fluorescence is known from laboratory studies to be induced by phycourobilin chromophore substitution at phycoerythrobilin chromophore sites in some strains of phycoerythrin-containing marine cyanobacteria. In an enchanted world, a young girl is walking and singing while playing ukulele. Outreach efforts include classroom, lab, and field-based activities at the Academy as well as at local schools. Highlights of the Ocean Sciences Meeting. Tomasz Ducki Polonia, 13 1. It is bordered to the east by the Laita river, a ria separating it from the Morbihan dept As a result, the Belon oysters are highly appreciated by countless gourmets all over the world. A working group on synergies of in-situ and satellite remote sensing is analyzing approaches for more effective use of these measurements. And a nice Grimbergen brassin de printemps or spring brewing beer! He is a four-time NASA dating apps de bergondo medalist for his achievements in developing a unified physical oceanography program that is well integrated with those of other federal agencies.
For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1, feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region.
The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity.
The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more. McKain, K. The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system, but net CO2 flux into the Southern Ocean is difficult to measure and model because it results from large opposing and seasonally-varying fluxes due to thermal forcing, biological uptake, and deep-water mixing.
We present an analysis to constrain the seasonal cycle of net CO2 exchange with the Southern Ocean , and the magnitude of summer uptake, using the vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 observed during three aircraft campaigns in the southern polar region. Derivation of fluxes from measured vertical gradients requires robust estimates of the residence time of air in the polar tropospheric domain, and of the contribution of long-range transport from northern latitudes outside the domain to the CO2 gradient. We use diverse independent approaches to estimate both terms, including simulations using multiple transport and flux models, and observed gradients of shorter-lived tracers with specific sources regions and well-known loss processes.
This study demonstrates the utility of aircraft profile measurements for constraining large-scale air-sea fluxes for the Southern Ocean , in contrast to those derived from the extrapolation of sparse ocean and atmospheric measurements and uncertain flux parameterizations. Ocean science research is key for a sustainable future. Human activity has already affected all parts of the ocean , with pollution increasing and fish-stocks plummeting. The UN's recent announcement of a Decade of Ocean Science provides a glimmer of hope, but scientists will need to work closely with decision-makers and society at large to get the ocean back on track.
The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals.
Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean , earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. Strategy for Ocean Exploration , and most recently, the U.
Commission on Ocean Policy Report As reported in The National Science Foundation's Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence COSEE Workshop Report , "The Ocean Sciences community did not answer this call, even though their discovery that the ocean was a more critical driving force in the natural environment than previously thought possessed great educational significance.
This presentation will focus on teachers' perceptions of how scientists conduct research, scientists' perceptions of how teachers should teach, and some misconceptions between the two groups. Criteria for high-quality professional development for teachers working with scientists will also be presented, along with a brief overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration program efforts to bring teachers and ocean scientists together to further ocean science literacy at the national level through recommendations put forth in the U.
The core mission of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence COSEE is to promote partnerships between research scientists and educators through a national network of regional and thematic centers. In addition, the COSEEs also disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education, and promote ocean sciences as a charismatic interdisciplinary vehicle for creating a more scientifically literate workforce and citizenry.
Although each center is mainly funded through a peer-reviewed grant process by the National Science Foundation NSF , the centers form a national network that fosters collaborative efforts among the centers to design and implement initiatives for the benefit of the entire network and beyond.
Among these initiatives the COSEE network has contributed to the definition, promotion, and dissemination of Ocean Literacy in formal and informal learning settings. Relevant to all research scientists, an Education and Public Outreach guide for scientists is now available at www.
This guide highlights strategies for engaging scientists in Ocean Sciences Education that are often applicable in other sciences.